Photoperiodic regulation of the diapause of the progeny in: Dynamics of sensitivity to photoperiod at the immature stages of maternal femalesTrichogramma embryophagum: Dynamics of sensitivity to photoperiod at the immature stages of maternal femalesHtg. (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae): Dynamics of sensitivity to photoperiod at the immature stages of maternal females

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Abstract

Photoperiodic regulation of T. embryophagum progeny prepupal diapause was investigated under laboratory conditions. Maternal females developed at 20°C, the position of the photosensitive period was detected by transferring immature stages between the diapause-inducing “short” day (L:D = 12:12) and the diapause-averting “long” day (L:D = 20:4). Progeny generation developed at L:D = 12:12 under the near-threshold temperature of 13°, 14°, or 15°C. Experiments showed that, at least under the used photo-thermal regimens, only the pupal stage was sensitive to the photoperiod influence. The highest photosensitivity was recorded during the last two days before the adult emergence. In this critical period, even a single short day cycle induced diapause in most of individuals. However, the reaction to the long day was weaker: at least two long light days immediately preceding the maternal adult emergence were necessary to avert the diapause. If a short day was preceded by a long day by more than 2-3 days before the adult emergence, the stepwise photoperiodic response caused an increase in the tendency to diapause. The results of this study could be used in pest biocontrol practice for elaboration of optimal methods for Trichogramma mass rearing and storage and also for prediction of its seasonal cycles under natural conditions.

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