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MarineSynechococcusthrive over a range of light regimes in the ocean. We examined the proteomic, genomic and physiological responses of sevenSynechococcusisolates to moderate irradiances (5–80 μE m−2 s−1), and show thatSynechococcusspans a continuum of light responses ranging from low light optimized (LLO) to high light optimized (HLO). These light responses are linked to phylogeny and pigmentation. Marine sub-cluster 5.1A isolates with higher phycouribilin: phycoerythrobilin ratios fell toward the LLO end of the continuum, while sub-cluster 5.1B, 5.2 and estuarineSynechococcuswith less phycouribilin fell toward the HLO end of the continuum. Global proteomes were highly responsive to light, with > 50% of abundant proteins varying more than twofold between the lowest and highest irradiance. All strains downregulated phycobilisome proteins with increasing irradiance. Regulation of proteins involved in photosynthetic electron transport, carbon fixation, oxidative stress protection (superoxide dismutases) and iron and nitrogen metabolism varied among strains, as did the number of high light inducible protein (Hlip) and DNA photolyase genes in their genomes. All but one LLO strain possessed the photoprotective orange carotenoid protein (OCP). The unique combinations of light responses in each strain gives rise to distinct photophysiological phenotypes that may affectSynechococcusdistributions in the ocean.