Previous studies of the stoichiometry of thiosulfate oxidation by colorless sulfur bacteria have failed to demonstrate mass balance of sulfur, indicating that unidentified oxidized products must be present. Here the reaction stoichiometry and kinetics under variable pH conditions during the growth ofThiomicrospira thermophilastrain EPR85, isolated from diffuse hydrothermal fluids at the East Pacific Rise, is presented. At pH 8.0, thiosulfate was stoichiometrically converted to sulfate. At lower pH, the products of thiosulfate oxidation were extracellular elemental sulfur and sulfate. We were able to replicate previous experiments and identify the missing sulfur as tetrathionate, consistent with previous reports of the activity of thiosulfate dehydrogenase. Tetrathionate was formed under slightly acidic conditions. Genomic DNA fromT. thermophilastrain EPR85 contains genes homologous to those in the Sox pathway (soxAXYZBCDL), as well as rhodanese and thiosulfate dehydrogenase. No other sulfur oxidizing bacteria containingsox(CD)2genes have been reported to produce extracellular elemental sulfur. If the apparent modified Sox pathway we observed inT. thermophilais present in marineThiobacillusandThiomicrospiraspecies, production of extracellular elemental sulfur may be biogeochemically important in marine sulfur cycling.