Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antibacterial characteristics, and currently are applied in Ag-containing products. This study found neural cells can uptake 3–5 nm AgNPs, and investigated the potential effects of AgNPs on gene expression of inflammation and neurodegenerative disorder in murine brain ALT astrocytes, microglial BV-2 cells and neuron N2a cells. After AgNPs (5, 10, 12.5 μg/ml) exposure, these neural cells had obviously increased IL-1β secretion, and induced gene expression of C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13), macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and glutathione synthetase (GSS) for inflammatory response and oxidative stress neutralization. Additionally, this study found amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques for pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) deposited in neural cells after AgNPs treatment. After AgNPs exposure, the gene expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) was induced, and otherwise, neprilysin (NEP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) were reduced in neural cells as well as protein level. These results suggested AgNPs could alter gene and protein expressions of Aβ deposition potentially to induce AD progress in neural cells. It's necessary to take notice of AgNPs distribution in the environment.