Oral relative bioavailability of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in contaminated soil and its prediction using in vitro strategies for exposure refinement

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Abstract

In this study, the bioavailability of DDTr (sum of DDT, DDD and DDE isomers) in pesticide-contaminated soil was assessed using an in vivo mouse model. DDTr relative bioavailability (RBA) ranged from 18.7±0.9 (As35) to 60.8±7.8% (As36) indicating that a significant portion of soil-bound DDTr was not available for absorption following ingestion. When DDTr bioaccessibility was assessed using the organic Physiologically Based Extraction Test (org-PBET), the inclusion of a sorption sink (silicone cord) enhanced DDTr desorption by up to 20-fold (1.6–3.8% versus 18.9–56.3%) compared to DDTr partitioning into gastrointestinal fluid alone. Enhanced desorption occurred as a result of the silicone cord acting as a reservoir for solubilized DDTr to partition into, thereby creating a flux for further desorption until equilibrium was achieved. When the relationship between in vivo and in vitro data was assessed, a strong correlation was observed between the mouse bioassay and the org-PBET+silicone cord (slope=0.94, y-intercept=3.5, r2=0.72) suggesting that the in vitro approach may provide a robust surrogate measure for the prediction of DDTr RBA in contaminated soil.

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