Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to induce neurotoxicity in rodents. Several recent epidemiological studies reported negative associations between residential outdoor air pollution and neurobehavioral performance. We investigated in a population of non-smoker adolescents the associations between the urinary concentration of trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA-U), a metabolite of benzene and used as proxy-biomarker of traffic exposure, and two neurobehavioral domains, i.e. sustained attention and short-term memory.Methods
In the framework of an environmental health surveillance study in Flanders (Belgium), we examined between 2008 and 2014 grade nine high school students (n=895). We used reaction time, number of omission errors, and number of commission errors in the Continuous Performance Test to evaluate sustained attention, and for the evaluation of short-term memory we used maximum digit span forward and backward of the Digit Span Test. We measured blood lead (PbB) to assess the independent effect of t,t-MA-U on neurobehavioral outcomes.Results
This neurobehavioral examination study showed that a ten-fold increase in t,t-MA-U was associated with a 0.14 SD lower sustained attention (95% Confidence Interval: −0.26 to −0.019; p=0.02) and a 0.17 SD diminished short-term memory (95% CI: −0.31 to −0.030; p=0.02). For the same increment in t,t-MA-U, the Continuous Performance Test showed a 12.2 ms higher mean reaction time (95% CI: 4.86–19.5; p=0.001) and 0.51 more numbers of errors of omission (95% CI: 0.057–0.97; p=0.028), while no significant association was found with errors of commission. For the Digit Span Tests, the maximum digit span forward was associated with a 0.20 lower number of digits (95% CI: −0.38 to −0.026; p=0.025) and maximum digit span backward with −0.15 digits (95% CI: −0.32 to 0.022; p=0.088). These associations were independent of PbB, parental education and other important covariates including gender, age, passive smoking, ethnicity, urinary creatinine, time of the day, and examination day of the week. For PbB, an independent association was only found with mean reaction time of the Continuous Performance Test (19.1 ms, 95% CI: 2.43–35.8; p=0.025).Conclusions
In adolescents, a ten-fold increase in the concentration of t,t-MA-U, used as a proxy-biomarker for traffic-related exposure, was associated with a significant deficit in sustained attention and short-term memory. The public health implications of this finding cannot be overlooked as the effect-size for these neurobehavioral domains was about 40% of the effect-size of parental education.