Antimony is used as a flame-retardant in textiles and plastics, in semiconductors, pewter, and as pigments in paints, lacquers, glass and pottery. Subacute or chronic antimony poisoning has been reported to cause sleeplessness. The prevalence of short sleep duration (<7 h/night) has been reported to be 37.1% in the general US population, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects 12–28 million US adults. Insufficient sleep and OSA have been linked to the development of several chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression, conditions that pose serious public health threats.Objective:
To investigate whether there is an association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders in the US adult population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008.Methods:
We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with several sleep disorders, including insufficient sleep and OSA, in adult (ages 20 years and older) participants of NHANES 2005–2008 (n=2654).Result:
We found that participants with higher urinary antimony levels had higher odds to experience insufficient sleep (≤6 h/night) (OR 1.73; 95%CI; 1.04, 2.91) as well as higher odds to have increased sleep onset latency (>30 min/night). Furthermore, we found that higher urinary antimony levels in participants were associated with OSA (OR 1.57; 95%CI; 1.05, 2.34), sleep problems, and day-time sleepiness.Conclusion:
In this study, we found that urinary antimony was associated with higher odds to have insufficient sleep and OSA. Because of the public health implications of sleep disorders, further studies, especially a prospective cohort study, are warranted to evaluate the association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders.