Assessment of temporal variation for the risk of particulate matters on asthma hospitalization

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Increased ambient concentration of particulate matters are considered as one of major causes for increased prevalence or exacerbation of asthma or asthma like symptoms. Recently, possible temporal variation in risks of PM on mortality has been suggested.

We investigated short-term effect of both PM10 and PM2.5 on asthma hospitalization, and assessed temporal variation of PM risks in Seoul, Korea, 2003–2011.

Generalized additive model was used to estimate PM risks on asthma hospitalization with consideration by long-term trend, influenza epidemic, day of week, meteorological factors. To assess temporal variation of PM risks, year-round PM risks were estimated. Stratified analysis by season and age-group were also conducted.

Estimated RRs of PM on asthma hospitalization by an increase of 10μg/m3were 1.0084 (95% CI: 1.0041–1.0127) and 1.0156 (95% CI: 1.0055–1.0259) respectively with 7-days lag periods (lag06). PM2.5 had stronger effect than PM10 for all age group. Elderly group was most affected by PM. For the analysis of temporal variation of PM risks, we found increasing trend in total population and the elderly group. In the season-specific analysis, we also found increasing trend in winter for PM10, and in spring for PM2.5.

PM10 and PM2.5 has adverse effect on asthma hospitalization with evidence suggesting temporal variation in PM risks. Further research will be needed to confirm the temporal variation of PM risk on asthma hospitalization, and to identify casual factors affecting this temporal variation. This study results could be evidentiary materials for establishing valid public health policies to reduce health burden or economic burden of asthma.

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