Environmental exposures and pediatric kidney function and disease: A systematic review

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BackgroundEnvironmental chemical exposures have been implicated in pediatric kidney disease. No appraisal of the available evidence has been conducted on this topic.MethodsWe performed a systematic review of the epidemiologic studies that assessed association of environmental exposures with measures of kidney function and disease in pediatric populations. The search period went through July 2016.ResultsWe found 50 studies that met the search criteria and were included in this systematic review. Environmental exposures reviewed herein included lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, fluoride, aflatoxin, melamine, environmental tobacco, bisphenol A, dental procedures, phthalates, ferfluorooctanoic acid, triclosan, and thallium/uranium. Most studies assessed environmental chemical exposure via biomarkers but four studies assessed exposure via proximity to emission source. There was mixed evidence of association between metal exposures, and other non-metal environmental exposures and pediatric kidney disease and other kidney disease biomarkers. The evaluation of causality is hampered by the small numbers of studies for each type of environmental exposure, as well as lack of study quality and limited prospective evidence.ConclusionThere is a need for well-designed epidemiologic studies of environmental chemical exposures and kidney disease outcomes.

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