Exposure to a single 0.5 Gy X-ray dose of eggs at 48 h after fertilisation (48 h egg), eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae (YSL) and first feeders induces a legacy effect in adult rainbow trout. This includes the transmission of a bystander effect to non-irradiated adult trout which had swam with the irradiated fish. The aim of this study was to investigate this legacy by analysing the gill proteome of these irradiated and bystander fish. Irradiation at all of the early life stages resulted in changes to proteins which play a key role in development but are also known to be anti-tumorigenic and anti-oxidant: upregulation of haemoglobin subunit beta (48 h egg), haemoglobin, serum albumin 1 precursor (eyed eggs), clathrin heavy chain 1 isoform X10 (eyed eggs and first feeders), and actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4 (first feeders), downregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, histone 1 (48 h egg), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), collagen alpha-1(1) chain like proteins (YSL), pyruvate kinase PKM-like protein (YSL and first feeders), ubiquitin-40S ribosomal proteins S27 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 A isoform 1B (first feeders). However irradiation of YSL and first feeders (post hatching early life stages) also induced proteomic changes which have a complex relationship with tumorigenesis or cancer progression; downregulation of alpha-1-antiprotease-like protein precursor, vigilin isoform X2 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (YSL) and upregulation of hyperosmotic glycine rich protein (first feeders). In bystander fish some proteomic changes were similar to those induced by irradiation: upregulation of haemoglobin subunit beta (48 h egg), haemoglobin (eyed eggs), actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 4, hyperosmotic glycine rich protein (first feeders), and downregulation of alpha-1-antiprotease-like protein, vigilin isoform X2, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (YSL), pyruvate kinase PKM-like protein and ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27a-like (first feeders). Other proteomic changes were unique to bystander fish; downregulation of TPI, ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S2 (eyed egg), cofilin-2, cold-inducible RNA-binding protein B-like isoform X3 (YSL) and superoxide dismutase (first feeder), and upregulation of haemoglobin subunit alpha, collagen 1a1 precursor, apolipoprotein A-1-1 and A-1–2 precursor (first feeders). These bystander effect proteomic changes have been shown to be overwhelmingly anti-tumorigenic or protective of the fish gill.