The etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) is poorly understood, however, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be related to increased risk. Personal care products, some of which contain EDCs, are widely used on a daily basis and are known to cross the placenta, be present in breastmilk, and are capable of inducing reproductive tract abnormalities. To determine the association between personal care product use during pregnancy and breastfeeding and TGCT risk, an analysis among mothers of TGCT cases and controls was conducted.Methods:
The US Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants (STEED) study enrolled TGCT cases and controls and their mothers between 2002 and 2005. The current analysis examined personal care product use during pregnancy among 527 mothers of TGCT cases and 562 mothers of controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for identified covariates.Results:
Maternal use of face lotion more than one time per week was associated with a significantly increased risk of TGCT (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08–1.86, p-trend: 0.01). None of the other products examined (perfume, hairspray, nail polish, hair dye, permanent wave, body lotion, deodorant, sunscreen) were associated with TGCT risk.Conclusions:
Frequent exposure to face lotion during pregnancy and while breastfeeding may be associated with increased TGCT risk. Further investigation into the endocrine disrupting effects of personal care products is warranted.