Metabolites of organophosphate ester flame retardants in urine from Shanghai, China

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


The metabolites of nine organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants were measured in 180 urine samples collected from a population (including adults and children) in western Shanghai, China, using liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The total urinary concentrations of nine OPE metabolites ranged 100–23800 pg/mL, with a geometric mean (GM) value of 1450 pg/mL. The concentrations of alkyl-OPE metabolites (879 pg/mL) were approximately an order of magnitude higher than those of aryl-OPE (53.7 pg/mL) and chlorinated-OPE metabolites (52.7 pg/mL). Diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (BEHP), and bis(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (BBOEP) were the dominant OPE metabolites found in urine. The results showed that an increase in age was associated with a significant decrease in urinary DPHP (r = −0.278, p < 0.01) and DNBP (r = −0.314, p < 0.01) concentrations. The highest concentrations of DPHP (GM = 80.7 pg/mL) and DNBP (GM = 16.9 pg/mL) were found in urine from people living in homes that were less than 10 years old. The urinary DNBP concentration was significantly associated with self-reported symptoms of allergy. Our result establishes baseline value for OPE exposure in a population in China for comparison in future studies.Graphical abstractHighlightsNine organophosphate ester (OPE) metabolites were determined in urine from a population in Shanghai.Urinary levels of OPE metabolites were lower than those from more developed countries.Age of donors and age of homes were determinants of diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and di-n-butyl phosphate (DNBP) exposures.Urinary DNBP levels were associated with self-reported symptoms of allergy.

    loading  Loading Related Articles