Occurrence and ecological risk of pharmaceuticals in river surface water of Bangladesh

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Pharmaceutical contamination in the aquatic environment is a global issue that affects aquatic animals, micro-organisms and human health. The occurrence and preliminary ecological risk of 12 (11 antibiotics and 1 antiepileptic drug) pharmaceuticals were investigated for the first time in the surface water of the old Brahmaputra River, where open-water-fed aquaculture activities are being practiced in Bangladesh. The pharmaceuticals were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), operated with positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Nine pharmaceuticals were detected in the river surface water, whereas three were below the limit of detection (LOD). Metronidazole was detected in all the samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 13.51 ng L−1. Trimethoprim had the second highest frequency of detection (95%) with the highest concentration (17.20 ng L−1). The ranges of concentration and detection frequency of sulfonamides and macrolides were

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