We examined the association between plasma lipids and total ascorbic acid in 256 men and 221 women age 20–65 years. Among men, we observed that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was 2.1 mg per dl higher, total:HDL cholesterol was 5.4% lower, total cholesterol was 4.8 mg per dl lower, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was 5.6 mg per dl lower, and triglyceride was 5.2% lower for each 0.5 mg per dl increment in ascorbic acid. The association between ascorbic acid and total:HDL cholesterol ratio in men was modified by glucose concentration. Among women, we observed that HDL cholesterol was 14.9 mg per dl higher for women with ascorbic acid levels ≤1.05 mg per dl and 0.9 mg per dl lower for women with ascorbic acid levels >1.05mg per dl for each 0.5 mg per dl increment in ascorbic acid. Total:HDL cholesterol ratio was 10.9% lower for women with ascorbic acid concentrations ≤1.45 mg per dl and 0.6% higher for women with ascorbic acid concentrations >1.45 mg per dl for each 0.5 mg per dl increment. The associations among ascorbic acid concentration, total and LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were weak or absent among women. These results are consistent with earlier observations relating ascorbic acid and HDL cholesterol and indicate that ascorbic acid might also be related to total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in men.