Early Growth Patterns in Children with Autism

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Abstract

Background:

Case-control studies have found increased head growth during the first year of life in children with autism spectrum disorder. Length and weight have not been as extensively studied, and there are few studies of population-based samples.

Methods:

The study was conducted in a sample of 106,082 children from the population-based Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The children were born in 1999–2009; by the end of follow-up on 31 December 2012, the age range was 3.6 through 13.1 years (mean 7.4 years). Measures were obtained prospectively until age 12 months for head circumference and 36 months for length and weight. We compared growth trajectories in autism spectrum disorder cases and noncases using Reed first-order models.

Results:

Subjects included 376 children (310 boys and 66 girls) with specialist-confirmed autism spectrum disorder. In boys with autism spectrum disorder, mean head growth was similar to that of other boys, but variability was greater, and 8.7% had macrocephaly (head circumference >97th cohort percentile) by 12 months of age. Autism spectrum disorder boys also had slightly increased body growth, with mean length 1.1 cm above and mean weight 300 g above the cohort mean for boys at age 12 months. Throughout the first year, the head circumference of girls with autism spectrum disorder was reduced—by 0.3 cm at birth and 0.5 cm at 12 months. Their mean length was similar to that of other girls, but their mean weight was 150–350 g below at all ages from birth to 3 years. The reductions in mean head circumference and weight in girls with autism spectrum disorder appear to be driven by those with intellectual disability, genetic disorders, and epilepsy.

Discussion:

Growth trajectories in children with autism spectrum disorder diverge from those of other children and the differences are sex specific. Previous findings of increased mean head growth were not replicated.

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