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Bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with variable metabolic effects in animal models. It is unknown whether BPA exposure affects glucose tolerance in pregnancy. We aimed to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentration is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).This study included 620 pregnant women from Shanghai, China 2012–2013. Maternal urinary BPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). GDM (n = 79) was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). Multivariate regressions were used to explore the relationships of urinary BPA with GDM, plasma glucose levels in the 75-g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), birth weight, and ponder index.The geometric mean of BPA was 1.32 μg/L. After adjustment for maternal age, education, husband smoking status, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and urinary creatinine concentration, plasma glucose at 2 hours in the 75-g OGTT was 0.36 mmol/L lower (95% confidence index [CI] = −0.73, 0.01) for women with urine BPA in the high versus the low tertile. For each unit increase in natural log-transformed BPA, the odds of GDM was reduced by 27% (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.97), the birth weight decreased by 25.70 g (95% CI = −54.48, 3.07), and ponder index was decreased by 0.02 (100 g/cm3) (95% CI = −0.03, 0.00).Higher maternal urinary BPA concentrations were associated with reduced risk of GDM and marginally lower birth weight and ponder index.