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Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a highly prevalent chronic inflammatory disease affecting nearly 40% of the children in Taiwan. Genetic susceptibility may interact with specific environmental factors leading to allergic disease development.To assess the interactions between catalase gene promoter polymorphisms and environmental factors on the risk of AR, we conducted a case-control study in Taiwan. Data on AR and environmental factors were collected from 800 children using the ISSAC questionnaire. The case group consisted of 263 children with AR, and the control group consisted of =537 healthy children. Genotyping was performed for rs1001179 and rs769214 polymorphisms, and environmental exposure was assessed using four indicators including dwelling visible molds, mold odor, moisture on surfaces, and water damage.We found that the presence of visible molds, mold odor, and moisture was associated with AR. An apparent joint effect of the GG genotype and mold odor, compared with the AA and AG combined genotypes and without any exposure indicator (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.95 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.20, 3.18]; interaction adjusted odds ratio = 2.59 [95% CI = 1.27, 5.30]), was observed.Our findings suggest that gene-environment interactions between the catalase polymorphism rs769214 and mold odor may play an important role in childhood AR development.