Retinal structure and function in vigabatrin-treated adult patients with refractory complex partial seizures

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Abstract

Objective

Evaluate visual-field and retinal-structure changes following adjunctive vigabatrin treatment in vigabatrin-naive adults with refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS).

Methods

Prospective, longitudinal, single-arm, open-label study (NCT01278173). Eligible patients (≥2 seizures/month who failed ≥3 therapies) who could reliably perform perimetry (Humphrey automated static) and retinal-structure assessment (spectral-domain optical coherence tomography) prior to vigabatrin exposure. Following vigabatrin initiation, testing occurred within 1 month (reference) and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. End points included mean change from reference in mean deviation (dB) and average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, visual-acuity changes from baseline, and number of patients who met predefined vision-parameter changes at two (confirmed) or three (persistent) consecutive visits.

Results

Sixty-five of 91 screened patients received ≥1 vigabatrin dose (all-patients-treated set [APTS]); 55 had valid reference and ≥1 post–reference assessments (full-analysis set [FAS]). Thirty-six APTS patients with valid pre–/post–reference values completed all planned visits (per-protocol set [PPS]). Thirty-eight (59%) APTS patients completed the study; 27 (42%) withdrew (none for visual-field changes); 32% and 15% had abnormally thin RNFL and abnormal visual acuity at baseline, respectively; 20% had abnormal central 30 degree visual fields in the reference period. No significant mean near visual-field changes were observed (PPS); mean change in average RNFL thickness increased significantly (1-year data: Left-eye: 6.37 μm, confidence interval (CI) 4.66–8.09; right-eye: 7.24 μm CI 5.47–9.01; PPS). No confirmed three-line decreases in visual acuity (FAS) were observed; five patients had predefined confirmed/persistent visual-field changes (FAS). All vision-related adverse events were nonserious; the most common was vision blurred (9%).

Significance

Prior to vigabatrin initiation, rCPS patients may already exhibit vision deficits. Up to 1 year of adjunctive vigabatrin treatment did not significantly change population near visual fields. Five patients met predefined visual-field-change criteria. RNFL thickening of unknown clinical significance was observed. Limitations include single-arm, open-label design; patients’ inability to perform ophthalmic/visual-field examinations; and limited vigabatrin-exposure duration.

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