This paper deals with the key distributional issues arising from the regulation of the environment and the management of natural resources. The paper is divided into a section dealing with poverty and a section dealing with broader income distribution effects. Although there is much discussion of the linkages of poverty to environmental degradation, empirical studies establishing these linkages are few. The relationship is critically dependent on the institutional structures in the countries concerned and how they respond to changing environmental pressures. On the broader distributional impacts, the papers focusses on the analysis of ganiers and losers from environmental regulations. The analysis is complex because the direct incidence is not the same as the final incidence. Much of the work has looked only at the former. In addition, the political economy of regulation needs to pay greater attention to impacts on key and vulnerable groups; more so than can be done by looking at broad income bands.