Efficiency and productivity growth is measured at the three-digit SIC level for six chemical industries for 1988–1993. The directional distance function is used to measure the lost chemical manufacturing output and the overproduction of toxic chemical releases. Total factor productivity growth is decomposed into a product of efficiency change and technical change. Accounting for toxic chemical releases, productivity grows at an annual rate of between 2.4% and 6.9%. We find no evidence that environmental protection measures reduce productivity growth.