The importance of ultrasonography after the first febrile urinary tract infection has been recently challenged. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasonography in detection of significant non-reflux abnormalities in the kidneys and the urinary tract, and to determine whether these findings influence treatment in these children. The clinical data and ultrasonography results of 155 children admitted to a university hospital with the first febrile urinary tract infection were analysed retrospectively. Renal ultrasonography was abnormal in 23 patients (14.8%). The major portion of these patients (81%) were younger than 2 years of age. Management of nine of these patients was changed based primarily on ultrasonography findings. Four of these patients were treated operatively. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ultrasonography performed after the first urinary tract infection may offer clinically important information about non-reflux abnormalities in the kidneys and urinary tract that can affect the management of children with these complications.