Functional magnetic resonance imaging for neurosurgical planning in neurooncology

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique that is widely available and can be used to determine the spatial relationships between tumor tissue and eloquent brain areas. Within certain limits, this functional information can be applied in the field of neurosurgery as a pre-operative mapping tool to minimize damage to eloquent brain areas. In this article, we review the literature on the use of fMRI for neurosurgical planning. The issues addressed are: (1) stimulation paradigms, (2) the influence of tumors on the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal, (3) post-processing the fMRI time course, (4) integration of fMRI results into neuronavigation systems, (5) the accuracy of fMRI and (6) fMRI compared to intra-operative mapping (IOM).

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