This study examines runoff and sediment generation rates within the road prism on unsealed road segments in the Cuttagee Creek catchment near Bermagui in New South Wales, Australia. A large (600 m2) rainfall simulator was used to measure runoff and sediment yields from each of the potential sediment and runoff sources and pathways. These included the road surface, table-drain, upslope contributing area and cutslope face, and the entire road segment as measured at the drain outlet. Experiments were conducted on two major types of road (ridge-top and cut-and-fill) of varying traffic usage and maintenance standard for two 30-minute simulations of increasing rainfall intensity. From the range of possible sources within the road prism, the road surface produced the dominant source of excess runoff and sediment at each site with limited contributions from the table-drain, cutslope face or contributing hillslope. Sediment generation varied significantly with road usage and traffic intensity. Road usage was strongly related to the amount of loose available sediment as measured prior to the experiments. Table-drains acted primarily as sediment traps during the low rainfall event but changes in sediment concentration within the drains were observed as runoff volumes increased during the higher rainfall event of 110 mm h-1, releasing sediment previously stored in litter and organic dams. The experiments demonstrate the potential roles of various features of the road prism in the generation and movement of sediment and water.