Although there is much evidence of intense soil erosion in cultivated areas of Navarre (Spain), information on it is currently scarce. Rill and ephemeral gully volumes can be used as a guide to minimum erosion rates. With the main purpose of determining the annual soil loss rates in cultivated areas of central Navarre, a detailed assessment of rainfall and of rill and gully erosion was made in 19 small catchments from October 1999 to September 2001. Seventeen of them were randomly selected, and were cultivated with winter cereals, vineyards or sunflowers. The other two catchments were selected to represent partially uncultivated lands abandoned for ten years. Channel cross-sections were measured by using a 1-m-wide micro-topographic profile meter, describing 632 cross-sections and processing information from 31 600 pins. Erosive events happened every year in the three study areas. For cereal catchments, soil losses occurred in only one or two rainfall events each year, usually at the end of autumn and in some summers, with high erosion rates (0·20-11·50 kg m-2 a-1). In vineyards, soil losses occurred several times per year, and in any season. This is attributed to the small percentage of surface covered by the crop throughout the year. Again, high erosion rates were found (0·33-16·19 kg m-2 a-1), with ephemeral gully erosion causing more loss than rill erosion. No-till is proposed as an effective conservation measure. From this large data set, it can be stated that rill erosion and ephemeral gully erosion are widespread in Mediterranean regions, and that much more attention should be paid to the problem. Abandoned fields showed very high erosion rates (16·19 kg m-2 a-1 on average), suggesting that the abandonment of marginal lands without implementing any erosion control can lead to severe erosion rates.