Sediment transport in high-speed flows over a fixed bed: 1. Particle dynamics

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Particle dynamics are investigated experimentally in supercritical high-speed open channel flow over a fixed planar bed of low relative roughness height simulating flows in high-gradient non-alluvial mountain streams and hydraulic structures. Non-dimensional equations were developed for transport mode, particle velocity, hop length and hop height accounting for a wide range of literature data encompassing sub- and supercritical flow conditions as well as planar and alluvial bed configurations. Particles were dominantly transported in saltation and particle trajectories on planar beds were rather flat and long compared with alluvial bed data due to (1) increased lift forces by spinning motion, (2) strongly downward directed secondary currents, and (3) a planar flume bed where variation in particle reflection and damping effects were minor. The analysis of particle saltation trajectories revealed that the rising and falling limbs were almost symmetrical contradicting alluvial bed data. Furthermore, no or negligible effect of particle size and shape on particle dynamics were found. Implications of experimental findings for mechanistic saltation-abrasion models are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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