ZUCKER, I. H., K. P. PATEL, H. D. SCHULTZ, Y.-F. LI, W. WANG, and R. U. PLIQUETT. Exercise training and sympathetic regulation in experimental heart failure. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 107–111, 2004. In this review, we put forth the hypothesis that reduction in sympathetic outflow after exercise training of animals with heart failure is mediated by reductions in angiotensin II and in angiotensin type 1 receptors. Furthermore, we provide evidence that exercise training provides for an upregulation of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase in the central nervous system that is sympathoinhibitory.