It has recently been suggested that P-glycoprotein is involved in the genesis and the treatment of the neurotoxic adverse events of anticancer drugs, including vincristine. A lower activity of P-glycoprotein in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) than in the central nervous system could contribute to the neurotoxicity of vincristine. Vincristine treatment is responsible for the induction of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene expression and transporter activity, with deleterious consequences, including a potential decrease in the efficiency of opioid analgesics, antidepressants or antiepileptics. Concerning cisplatin, which is also a strong neurotoxic drug but only an multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) substrate, the same assumption could be suggested for MRP2 nervous function. The aim of this study was to assess MDR gene and protein activity in a rat model of cisplatin-induced neuropathy compared with different peripheral nerve injury models, i.e. mononeuropathy and inflammatory pain (monoarthritis). First, in cisplatin-induced neuropathy, this study demonstrated low MRP2 gene expression in dorsal root ganglia compared with the brain and spinal cord, which could contribute to the strong neurotoxicity of cisplatin in the PNS and particularly the dorsal root ganglia. Thus, gene expression increased in cisplatin-induced neuropathy but decreased in mononeuropathy and remained unchanged in monoarthritis models. Transporter activity of nervous tissues increased in the cisplatin-induced neuropathy, mononeuropathy and monoarthritis to different intensities (3.7-, 1.8- and 1.8-fold, respectively). The development of a MDR in the cisplatin-induced neuropathy is a striking difference with mononeuropathy and monoarthritis models, and characterizes the neuropathies induced by this anticancer drug.