Potentiation by neuropeptide Y of serotonin (5-HT)-induced vasoconstriction was investigated in porcine coronary artery. 5-HT caused concentration-dependent contraction through 5-HT2A receptors. Neuropeptide Y (30 nM) significantly increased the 5HT-induced contraction by 16 ± 5% in arteries with intact endothelium. Removal of the endothelium abolished the potentiation. A neuropeptide Y1 antagonist, BIBP3226, blocked this neuropeptide Y-induced potentiation. In vessels with intact endothelium, the potentiation by neuropeptide Y was inhibited by in the presence of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (30 μM), but not by the presence of ETA or ETB endothelin receptor antagonists or an NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine (L-NNA) (1 mM) at all. A thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase inhibitor, ozagrel, and prostanoid TP receptor antagonists, seratrodast and ONO-3708, also inhibited the neuropeptide Y-induced potentiation. In the endothelium-denuded arteries, a prostanoid TP receptor agonist, U-46619 (0.01–0.1 nM), potentiated 5-HT-induced contraction. These results indicate that neuropeptide Y potentiates the 5-HT-induced contraction, due to release of TXA2 from the endothelium via neuropeptide Y1 receptors, in porcine coronary artery.