In this study we investigated the effects of N-hexacosanol on streptozotocin-induced rat diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced in 8-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats by administering an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). The rats were divided into four groups and maintained for 8 weeks: control rats, diabetic rats without treatment with N-hexacosanol, and diabetic rats treated with N-hexacosanol (2 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg i.p. every day). Although N-hexacosanol failed to modify the diabetic status, increases in serum creatinine as well as in kidney weight were significantly reduced. The malonaldehyde and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) concentrations as well as the protein kinase C (PKC) activities in the diabetic kidney were significantly higher than those of the control, which were decreased by treatment with N-hexacosanol. Histological examinations revealed that N-hexacosanol significantly ameliorated diabetic-induced tubulointerstitial pathological changes. Our data suggest that N-hexacosanol could prevent increases in the malonaldehyde and TGF-β1 concentrations and PKC activities in the kidney, and ameliorate diabetic-induced nephropathy.