Cytotoxic effects of intra and extracellular zinc chelation on human breast cancer cells

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Zinc is an essential trace element with cofactor functions in a large number of proteins of intermediary metabolism, hormone secretion pathways, immune defence mechanisms, and as a cofactor of transcription factors it is also involved in the control of gene expression. Our study demonstrates that the modulation of intra and extracellular zinc alone is sufficient to induce metabolic changes or even apoptosis in two model human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB468. Treatment of breast cancer cells with different concentrations of a cell membrane permeable zinc chelator, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) and the membrane impermeable zinc chelator, diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid, (DTPA) resulted in a significant increase of cell death. Features of apoptosis, such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation accompanied the DTPA and TPEN-induced cell death. A significant increase in the activity of caspase-9 was observed in both cell lines; whereas, caspase-3 activity was only increased in MDA-MB468 cells since caspase-3 is not expressed in MCF-7 cells. Caspase-8 activation was negligible in both cell lines. Addition of Zn2+ or Cu2+ prevented DTPA and TPEN-induced cytotoxicity, indicating that both bivalent cations can be replaced functionally to a certain extent in our experimental system. Interestingly, addition of Ca2+, or Mg2+ had no effect. The antioxidant N-Acetyl–l-Cysteine inhibited the cytotoxic effect of DTPA and TPEN, indicating that oxidative stress is the likely mediator of Zn-deficiency-related cell death.

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