Protective effects of phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE1) and ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channel modulators against 3-nitropropionic acid induced behavioral and biochemical toxicities in experimental Huntington's disease

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Huntington's disease (HD), a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by weight loss, impairment of motor function, cognitive dysfunction, neuropsychiatric disturbances and striatal damage. Phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE1) has been implicated in various neurological diseases. Mitochondrial potassium channels in the brain take part in neuroprotection. This study has been structured to investigate the role of vinpocetine, a selective PDE1 inhibitor as well as nicorandil, selective ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced HD symptoms in rats. Systemic administration of 3-NP significantly, reduced body weight, impaired locomotion, grip strength and impaired cognition. 3-NP elicited marked oxidative stress in the brain (enhanced malondialdehyde-MDA, reduced glutathione-GSH content, superoxide dismutase-SOD and catalase-CAT), elevated brain acetylcholinesterase activity and inflammation (myeloperoxidase-MPO), with marked nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate) in the brain. 3-NP has also induced mitochondrial dysfunction (impaired mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase-complex I, succinate dehydrogenase-complex II and cytochrome oxidase-complex IV) activities in the striatum of the rat. Tetrabenazine was used as a positive control. Treatment with vinpocetine, nicorandil and tetrabenazine ameliorated 3-NP induced reduction in body weight, impaired locomotion, grip strength and impaired cognition. Treatment with these drugs reduced brain striatum oxidative (MDA, GSH, SOD and CAT) and nitrosative (nitrite/nitrate) stress, acetylcholinesterase activity, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunctions. These results indicate that vinpocetine, a selective PDE1 inhibitor and nicorandil, a KATP channel opener have attenuated 3-NP induced experimental HD. Hence, pharmacological modulation of PDE1 as well as KATP channels may be considered as potential research targets for mitigation of HD.

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