Activities of 2-phthalimidethyl nitrate and 2-phthalimidethanol in the models of nociceptive response and edema induced by formaldehyde in mice and preliminary investigation of the underlying mechanisms

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Abstract

The activities of 2-phthalimidethyl nitrate (PTD-NO) and 2-phthalimidethanol (PTD-OH) were recently demonstrated in models of pain and inflammation. We expanded our investigation by evaluating their activities in models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain and inflammatory edema, the preliminary pharmacokinetic parameter for PTD-NO and the role of opioid and cannabinoid pathways in the activity of analogs. Per os (p.o.) administration of PTD-NO or PTD-OH, 1 h before intraplantar injection of formaldehyde, inhibited both phases of the nociceptive response (500 and 750 mg/kg) and paw edema (125, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg). After p.o. administration of PTD-NO, peak plasma concentrations of PTD-NO and PTD-OH were found 0.92 and 1.13 h, respectively. The plasma concentrations of PTD-NO were higher than those of PTD-OH. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of CB1 (AM251) or CB2 (AM630) cannabinoid receptor antagonists (4 or 8 mg/kg, −30 min) or opioid antagonist naltrexone (5 or 10 mg/kg, −30 min) did not affect the antinociceptive activities of the analogs. AM251 (8 mg/kg, i.p., −30 min) attenuated the antiedematogenic activity of both analogs, while naltrexone (10 mg/kg, i.p., −30 min) only attenuated the antiedematogenic activity of PTD-NO. The antiedematogenic activities of both analogs were not affected by the CB2 cannabinoid antagonist AM630 (4 or 8 mg/kg, i.p., −30 min). Concluding, we expanded the knowledge on the activities of PTD-NO and PTD-OH by showing that these phthalimide analogs also exhibit marked activity in models of nociceptive and inflammatory pain and inflammatory edema. Opioid and cannabinoid mechanisms partially mediate the anti-inflammatory, but not the antinociceptive activity.

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