To set up a retinal degenerative model in rat that mimics pathologic conditions such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, and assess the effect of TGF-β1. Sprague-Dawley male rats were used. Human Aβ1–42 oligomers were intravitreally (ITV) injected (10 μM) in the presence or in the absence of recombinant human TGF-β1 (1 ng/μl ITV injected). After 48 h, the animals were sacrificed and the eyes removed and dissected. The apoptotic markers Bax and Bcl-2 were assessed by western blot analysis in retina lysates. Gene-pathway network analysis was carried out in order to identify pathways involved in AMD. Treatment with Aβ oligomers induced a strong increase in Bax protein level (about 4-fold; p<0.01) and a significant reduction in Bcl-2 protein level (about 2-fold; p<0.05). Co-injection of TGF-β1 triggered a significant reduction of Bax protein induced by Aβ oligomers. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Bcl-2 and PI3K-Akt are the most connected nodes, for genes and pathways respectively, in the enriched gene-pathway network common to AMD and Alzheimer disease (AD). Overall, these data indicate that ITV injection of Aβ1–42 oligomers in rat induces molecular changes associated with apoptosis in rat retina, highlighting a potential pathogenetic role of Aβ oligomers in AMD. Bioinformatics analysis confirms that apoptosis pathways can take part in AMD. Furthermore, these findings suggest that human recombinant TGF-β1 can prevent retinal damage elicited by Aβ oligomers.