Cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) play an important role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). We investigated the effects of flavocoxid, a dual COX/LOX inhibitor, in experimental colitis induced with either dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS) or dextrane sulphate sodium (DSS)
In the first model, colitis was induced in rats by a single intra-colonic instillation (25 mg in 0.8 ml 50% ethanol) of DNBS; after 24 h animals were randomized to receive orally twice a day, flavocoxid (10 mg/kg), zileuton (50 mg/kg), or celecoxib (5 mg/kg). Sham animals received 0.8 ml of saline by a single intra-colonic instillation. Rats were killed 4 days after induction and samples were collected for analysis. In the second model, colitis was induced in rats by the administration of 8% DSS dissolved in drinking water; after 24 h animals were randomized to the same above reported treatments. Sham animals received standard drinking water. Rats were killed 5 days after induction and samples were collected for analysis.
Flavocoxid, zileuton and celecoxib improved weight loss, reduced colonic myeloperoxydase activity, macroscopic and microscopic damage, and TNF-α serum levels. Flavocoxid and celecoxib also reduced malondialdheyde, 6-keto PGF1α and PGE-2 levels while flavocoxid and zileuton decreased LTB-4 levels. In addition, flavocoxid treatment improved histological features and apoptosis as compared to zileuton and celecoxib; moreover only flavocoxid reduced TXB2, thus avoiding an imbalance in eicosanoids production.
Our results show that flavocoxid has protective effect in IBDs and may represents a future safe treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases.