Effects of a human recombinant alkaline phosphatase during impaired mitochondrial function in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells

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Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury is a multifactorial syndrome in which inflammation and renal microcirculatory dysfunction play a profound role. Subsequently, renal tubule mitochondria reprioritize cellular functions to prevent further damage. Here, we investigated the putative protective effects of human recombinant alkaline phosphatase (recAP) during inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC). Full inhibition of mitochondrial oxygen consumption was obtained after 24 h antimycin A treatment, which did not affect cell viability. While recAP did not affect the antimycin A-induced decreased oxygen consumption and increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α or adrenomedullin gene expression levels, the antimycin A-induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 was attenuated. Antimycin A tended to induce the release of detrimental purines ATP and ADP, which reached statistical significance when antimycin A was co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide, and were completely converted into cytoprotective adenosine by recAP. As the adenosine A2A receptor was up-regulated after antimycin A exposure, an adenosine A2A receptor knockout ciPTEC cell line was generated in which recAP still provided protection. Together, recAP did not affect oxygen consumption but attenuated the inflammatory response during impaired mitochondrial function, an effect suggested to be mediated by dephosphorylating ATP and ADP into adenosine.Graphical abstract

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