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Toll-like receptors are transmembrane glycoproteins predominantly expressed in tissues with immune function. They are considered one of the most important pattern recognition receptor families discovered at the end of 20th century and a key aspect of the innate immune system response to infectious disease. Here we present a review of the current knowledge of individual Toll-like receptors, 1 through 13, with a focus on their role in the immune system response to mycobacterial infection. We present literature to date about the Toll-like receptors structure, localization and expression, signaling pathways, and function. The Toll-like receptor family may have proven an important role in the immune system response to mycobacterial infections, including M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous (NTM) organisms.