Role of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) in immune responses to fungal infections

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Recent years have seen the rise of invasive fungal infections, which are mostly due to the increase in patients. Three major opportunistic fungal species in human are Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans that pose the biggest concern for these immunocompromised patients’ mortality. The growing occurrence of opportunistic fungal infections has sparked the interest to understand defense mechanisms against pathogenic fungi. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as a part of innate immune system, play an important role for recognizing the invading microorganisms and initiating sufficient immune responses. Recent studies have revealed an integrated role for TLR, signaling inactivating immune defense mechanisms against exact fungi. Among TLRs, TLR2 and TLR4 are the major participants in fungi recognition. The present paper highlights the role of TLR participants in fungal recognition as well as their mechanisms.

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