Fructose 1, 6-diphosphate (FDP), a glycolytic intermediate, has been identified to possess antioxidant activities. Here we show the protective effect of FDP against alcohol-induced liver injury in mice and the underlying mechanisms. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that FDP, orally administered to mice, dose-dependently suppressed alcohol (50%, v/v, 12 ml/kg)-induced increase of serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum triglyceride (TG) level and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level. FDP also inhibited liver histological lesions induced by seven-day administration of alcohol to mice. In vitro study indicated that FDP inhibited ethanol-induced L02 cell apoptosis via reducing pro-caspase3 protein level and increasing poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. The mechanism analysis showed that FDP prevented ethanol-induced decrease of mouse antioxidant capability through inhibiting the reducion of the level of glutathione (GSH) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in mouse livers, and suppressing the reducion of GSH level and SOD activity in L02 cells. FDP also enhanced alcohol metabolic rate through increasing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) protein level, and down-regulating cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1). These results displayed that FDP protected mice from alcohol-induced liver injury, suggesting the potential activity of FDP in preventing alcoholic liver disease (ALD).