Lower vertebrate and invertebrate models of Alzheimer's disease – A review

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Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder which is characterized by the presence of beta- amyloid protein and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Till now, various higher vertebrate models have been in use to study the pathophysiology of this disease. But, these models possess some limitations like ethical restrictions, high cost, difficult maintenance of large quantity and lesser reproducibility. Besides, various lower chordate animals like Danio rerio, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and Ciona intestinalis have been proved to be an important model for the in vivo determination of targets of drugs with least limitations. In this article, we reviewed different studies conducted on theses models for the better understanding of the pathophysiology of AD and their subsequent application as a potential tool in the preclinical evaluation of new drugs.

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