Chronic kidney disease affects as much as 13% of the population, and is associated with a markedly increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. One of the underlying reasons is accelerated development of atherosclerosis. This can be ascribed both to increased occurrence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and to risk factors that may be unique to patients with chronic kidney disease. The latter is reflected in the observation that the current treatment modalities, mainly directed against traditional risk factors, are insufficient to prevent cardiovascular disease in the patient with chronic kidney disease. This review discusses mechanisms accelerating uremic atherosclerosis with a specific focus on the putative roles of apolipoprotein(apo)s B and M that may be particularly important in patients with chronic kidney disease.