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Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors (collectively termed incretin-based therapies) represent two of the most widely used classes of antidiabetic drugs. These compounds exert their beneficial effects on carbohydrate metabolism through the activation of specific glucagon like peptide-1 receptors in various organs. Accumulating evidence suggests that glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors also affect renal function in both glucagon like peptide-1 receptor-dependent and independent manner. However, the clinical significance of these observations remains indeterminate. In this review, we summarize the available preclinical and clinical data on the effects of incretin-based therapies on renal function indices and discuss their relevance in everyday clinical practise.