(-)-Epicatechin stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and cell growth in C2C12 myotubes via the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor

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We have reported on the capacity of (-)-epicatechin ((-)-EPI) to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis (MiB) in mouse skeletal muscle (SkM). However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of (-)-EPI are not fully understood. We previously identified a role of the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in modulating the vascular effects of (-)-EPI. We therefore tested the hypothesis that GPER mediates (at least in part) the stimulatory effects of (-)-EPI on MiB in SkM cells. As an in vitro model, we employed mouse SkM-derived C2C12 myoblasts differentiated into myotubes. Using confocal microscopy, we detected GPER at the cell surface and cytoplasm in C2C12 myotubes. Treatment with (-)-EPI (3 and 10 μM) resulted in the stimulation of MiB as per increases in mitochondrial inner (MitoTracker Red FM fluorescence staining) and outer membrane (porin protein levels) markers, transcription factors involved in MiB stimulation (i.e., nuclear respiratory factor-2 [NRF-2] and mitochondrial transcription factor A [TFAM] protein levels) and citrate synthase (CS) activity levels. (-)-EPI-treated myotubes were longer and wider compared to vehicle-treated myotubes. The effects of (-)-EPI on myotube mitochondria and cell size were larger in magnitude to those observed with the GPER agonist G-1. The chemical blockade and down-regulation (siRNA) of GPER evidenced a partial and complete blockade of measured endpoints following (-)-EPI- or G-1-treatment, respectively. Altogether, results indicate that GPER is expressed in muscle cells and appears to mediate to a significant extent, the stimulatory effects of (-)-EPI on MiB. Thus, GPER activation may account for the stimulatory effects of (-)-EPI on SkM structure/function.Graphical abstract

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