(E)-2-Methoxy-4-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-1-en-1-yl) phenol attenuates PMA-induced inflammatory responses in human monocytic cells through PKCδ/JNK/AP-1 pathways

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Abstract

(E)-2-Methoxy-4-(3-(4-methoxyphenyl) prop-1-en-1-yl) phenol (MMPP), a new (E)-2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2 - butenal derivative, reportedly has therapeutic effects such as anti-arthritic properties. Although previous studies showed that MMPP has anti-arthritic effects on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the anti-inflammation mechanism of MMPP remains unclear. In this study, phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was used as an inflammatory stimulus to evaluate the detailed mechanism of the MMPP-mediated anti-inflammatory effect in human monocytic THP-1 cells. We investigated the effects of MMPP on inflammation-related pathways including protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), mitogen-activated protein kinase, and activator protein-1 (AP-1). PMA induced the translocation of PKCs from the cytosol to the membrane and phosphorylated JNK. MMPP inhibited PMA-induced membrane translocation of PKCδ, phosphorylation of JNK, and nuclear translocation of AP-1, resulting in downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and chemokine ligand 5 production. These findings indicate that MMPP inhibits inflammatory responses in THP-1 cells by mitigating PMA-induced activation of PKCδ and JNK and nuclear translocation of AP-1. Therefore, MMPP may be useful as an anti-inflammatory drug.

Graphical abstract

MMPP inhibits inflammatory responses in THP-1 cells by mitigating PMA-induced activation of PKCδ and JNK and nuclear translocation of AP-1. PMA induced the translocation of PKC from the cytosol to the membrane and phosphorylated JNK. MMPP inhibited PMA-induced membrane translocation of PKCδ, phosphorylation of JNK, and nuclear translocation of AP-1, resulting in downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and chemokine ligand 5 production.

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