Local administration of mangiferin prevents experimental inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia through CINC-1/epinephrine/PKA pathway and TNF-α inhibition

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Steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to control inflammatory pain, but there is a risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and increased heart failure risk. The search for new drugs remains ongoing, and natural products are a source for potential new compounds. Mangiferin, a natural xanthone C-glucoside, has demonstrated biological activity, including anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, but it's mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of local administration of mangiferin. We employed an electronic von Frey apparatus to evaluate mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan in rats. Mangiferin (150–1200 μg/paw), administered locally into the hindpaw, prevented hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent – 150 μg (− 9%), 300 μg (− 27%, P < 0.01), 600 μg (− 77%, P < 0.001) and 1000 μg (− 93%, P < 0.001) – and local manner. Mangiferin showed decreased levels of TNF-α (P < 0.001) and CINC-1 (P < 0.001), but not IL-1β; it also prevented neutrophil migration (P < 0.01), but not the increased COX-2 expression in peripheral tissue challenged with carrageenan. To further explore the mechanisms of mangiferin actions, rats were injected with modulators of inflammation and nociception; mangiferin prevented hyperalgesia induced by IL-1β (P < 0.01), CINC-1 (P < 0.01), epinephrine (P < 0.01), 8-Br-cAMP (P < 0.01) or capsaicin (P < 0.01), but not that induced by PGE2 or α,β-MeATP. Our study shows that mangiferin has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties when locally administrated. The control of the inflammatory response and mechanical hyperalgesia by mangiferin depends on the inhibition of TNF-α production/release and the CINC1/epinephrine/PKA pathway, supporting its marked inhibition of inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia.

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