Inhibition of prostatic smooth muscle contraction by the inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2/3, CMPD101

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Alpha1-adrenoceptors induce prostate smooth muscle contraction, and hold a prominent role for pathophysiology and therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms in benign prostatic hyperplasia. G protein-coupled receptors are regulated by posttranslational regulation, including phosphorylation by G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 (GRK2/3). Although posttranslational adrenoceptor regulation has been recently suggested to occur in the prostate, this is still marginally understood. With the newly developed CMPD101, a small molecule inhibitor with assumed specificity for GRK2/3 is now available. Here, we studied effects of CMPD101 on smooth muscle contraction of human prostate tissue. Electric field stimulation caused frequency-dependent contractions, which were inhibited concentration-dependently by CMPD101 (5 μM, 50 μM). 50 μM of CMPD101 did not affect myosin light chain (MCL) phosphorylation or Rho kinase activity, and did not alter contractions induced by highmolar KCl. Noradrenaline, the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, endothelin-1, and the thromboxane A2 analogue U46619 induced concentration-dependent contractions, which were inhibited by CMPD101 (50 μM). CMPD101 (50 μM) did not change phosphorylation of β2-adrenoceptors or β2-adrenergic relaxation of prostate strips. Molecular detection by Western blot and peroxidase staining suggested expression of GRK2 and GRK3 in human prostates. Double labeling in fluorescence staining confirmed that immunoreactivity for GRK2 and GRK3 was located to smooth muscle cells in the prostate stroma. In conclusion, CMPD101 inhibits adrenergic, neurogenic, and non-adrenergic smooth muscle contractions in the human prostate. Underlying mechanisms may be independent from GRK inhibition, and from inhibition of MLC kinase and Rho kinase. This may point to unknown properties of CMPD101.

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