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Mulberry leaves are one of the most commonly used medicinal and herbaceous traditional Chinese medicines that are currently considered for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The alkaloids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides in mulberry leaves impart regulatory effects on blood sugar levels. To identify the hypoglycemia-related active components in mulberry leaves and their targets, the present study conducted gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS), which identified 202 components of mulberry leaf, of which 22 components may have significant curative effects on diabetes mellitus and its complications and chronic inflammation. The network-based pharmacological analysis platform was used to identify target proteins related to diabetes. Finally, the interaction networks of these target proteins were identified using STRING and Cytoscape. The results showed that mulberry leaf powder contains tricetin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, and other drug components that can regulate tumor necrosis factor (TNF), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3B), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and other proteins, which are related to the insulin and inflammatory signaling pathways, glucose metabolism and other related pathways, chronic inflammatory diseases, obesity, diabetic nephropathy, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and other diseases.