Dose-dependent effects of adenosine antagonists on tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements

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The present study examines the effect of three adenosine receptor antagonists on tremulous jaw movements (TJMs), an animal model of tremor. Forty-five rats were pre-treated with one adenosine antagonist: caffeine (0.0, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg; non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT; 0.0, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg; selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), or SCH 58261 (0.0 or 8.0 mg/kg; selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist) followed by TJM induction with tacrine (0.0, 0.75, or 2.5 mg/kg; acetylcholinesterase inhibitor). CPT and SCH 58261 both significantly reduced TJMs while caffeine did not. Unexpectedly, both SCH 58261 and CPT reduced TJMs even in the absence of tacrine. Also, CPT showed a robust reduction of TJMs, achieved at both (5.0 mg/kg) and (10.0 mg/kg) doses and regardless of tacrine dose. In conclusion, this study shows adenosine receptor antagonism to generally suppress low-dose tacrine-induced TJMs. In concert with two prior studies, these results are suggestive of behavioral evidence for a biphasic effect of adenosine A2A receptor antagonists (caffeine and SCH 58261) that is modulated by tacrine, and a model of this effect is proposed.

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