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Pediatric surgery is essential for the surgical treatment of children in Europe and is generally a well-accepted specialty in Europe. There are still limited data on the training conditions within the European national associations of pediatric surgery.A questionnaire designed by the executive committee of UEMS Section of Pediatric Surgery was distributed among all ordinary and associated UEMS members, which have national pediatric surgical associations, and to Russia. These questionnaires were completed by colleagues of the national associations and returned to the authors.In this study, 29 out of 37 (78%) national associations of pediatric surgery answered the questionnaire. In 90% of these countries, pediatric surgery is a distinct specialty. Training usually starts with a common surgical trunk (75%) of 1 to 2 years; the whole training lasts ˜6 years. Nonsurgical parts of the training, such as pediatrics, are part of the training program in 54% of countries. The content of the training comprises general pediatric surgery and newborn surgery in all countries, pediatric surgical oncology and pediatric urology in most countries, and pediatric traumatology and pediatric neurosurgery only in some countries. More than 90% of countries use a training logbook, and 79% require a final examination. The European Board of Pediatric Surgery exam is recognized only in 54% of the countries.This study reveals that a uniform training schedule in pediatric surgery throughout Europe has not been achieved. This situation mandates urgent attempt to harmonize both training curricula and final exams at European level.