Boll number, lint percentage, and boll weight are three component traits for lint yield of upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Selecting high yielding lines or hybrids depends on the ability to dissect the genetic relationship of lint yield with these component traits. In this study, 14 day-neutral lines with desirable fiber quality derived from primitive accessions were top crossed with five commercial cultivars. The F2 populations and parents were grown in one location in 1998 and two locations in 1999 at Mississippi State, MS. The F3 populations and parents were grown in two locations in 2000. Lint yield and three component traits were measured and analyzed by the ADAA genetic model with the mixed model based conditional approach. Results showed that boll number or boll number with lint percentage or boll weight contributed to the majority of the phenotypic variance and variance components for lint yield. Boll number was more important than the other two component traits in terms of various genetic effects. The results also showed that the combination of boll number and boll weight greatly increased the contribution to lint yield even though boll weight itself had no significant contribution to lint yield compared to boll number alone. The genetic contribution effects were also predicted due to single component traits or their combinations for parents and crosses. The results revealed that the balanced selection of boll weight and boll number should be considered to obtain high yielding hybrids or pure lines.