Treatment of chronic heart failure: a comparison between the major guidelines

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Because of rapid advances in the treatment of chronic heart failure, four important guidelines, including those from the European Society of Cardiology, have recently been updated. This review compares and contrasts the levels of evidence and classes of recommendation given to each of the key pharmacological and device therapies advocated by these guidelines. Possible explanations for discrepancies between the guidelines are discussed. Future approaches that might clarify the grade of evidence allocated and class of recommendation made are also described.

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